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A Sustainable, Thriving Cocoa Sector for Future Generations (Publication)

The problem posed to the cocoa sector by gender inequality in Côte d’Ivoire is twofold: First, since women perform 45% of the work on cocoa farms, it is inefficient from an economic standpoint not to view them as farmers and to fail to facilitate their participation in training and their access...

Detailed Analysis of the Microbial Population in Malaysian Spontaneous Cocoa Pulp Fermentations Reveals a Core and Variable Microbiota (Publication)

The fermentation of cocoa pulp is one of the few remaining large-scale spontaneous microbial processes in today’s food industry. The microbiota involved in cocoa pulp fermentations is complex and variable, which leads to inconsistent production efficiency and cocoa quality. Despite intensive...

Modeling the Determinants of Farmers’ Decision on Exclusive Schooling and Child Labor in the Cocoa Sector of Ghana (Publication)

The use of children on cocoa farms in West Africa has received extensive attention over the last few decades due to media coverage in the international press and growing pressure from international organizations such as the International Labor Organization. Based on 2007 cocoa sector survey, the...

A product chain organisation study of certified Cocoa supply (Publication)

Cocoa supplies may become limited in the future. Demands for sustainable cocoa sparked an exploration of the product chain organisation of conventional and certified cocoa from Ghana. The comparison shows that transparency requirements have led to a more complex product chain. Even so,...

Analysis of Incentives and Disincentives for Cocoa In Ghana (Publication)

This technical note aims to describe the market incentives and disincentives for Cocoa in Ghana.

For this purpose, yearly averages of farm gate and wholesale prices are compared with reference prices calculated on the basis of the price of the commodity in the international market. The...

The Partially Liberalized Cocoa Sector in Ghana (Publication)

The cocoa sector in Ghana is one of few examples of an export commodity sector in an African country that has withstood the pressure to fully liberalize. Despite substantial government control over internal and external marketing via the Ghana Cocoa Board (COCOBOD), the current institutional...

Impact of Collective Marketing by Cocoa Farmers’ Organizations in Cameroon (Publication)

The aim of this paper is to evaluate the impact of collective marketing by FO on cocoa farmer’s price in Cameroun. This evaluation is done through the non-experimental method of impact evaluation which uses the techniques of “Propensity Score Matching”. Results show that collective marketing has...

A Global Strategy for the Conservation and Use of Cacao Genetic Resources as the Foundation for a Sustainable Cocoa Economy (Publication)

The future of the world cocoa economy depends on the availability of genetic diversity and the sustainable use of this broad genetic base to breed improved varieties. Decreasing cacao genetic diversity (in situ, on-farm and conserved in collections) is a serious problem and all its many causes...

Pes and cocoa - Securing future supplies and preserving biodiversity by paying cocoa farmers for Ecosystem Services (Publication)

Cocoa farmers can make an important contribution to the preservation of biodiversity. Areas where cocoa is produced can for example act as a buffer for – or corridor between – nature reserves. Farmers do not receive a reward for such ecosystem services, however. This is a missed opportunity....

Rooting out child labour from cocoa farms - Nr 2 Safety and health hazards (Publication)

The problems related to agricultural child labour are particularly acute in sub-Saharan Africa, where nearly 30 per cent of all children under the age of 15 are thought to be working. International media attention at the beginning of the decade on the use of child labour in cocoa farming in West...

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