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Ecosystem Stewardship in the Cacao Trade System: A Change Management Design for a Medium-Sized Chocolate Company (Publication)

The global cacao trade is a complex system that has powerful impacts on natural ecosystems and humans involved. Major negative consequences include direct
biodiversity and habitat loss, increased global climate change through CO2 emissions, and cacao farmers experiencing an ongoing cycle...

Cocoa and Coconut in the Solomon Islands: A Family Affair (Publication)

Cocoa and Coconut in the Solomon Islands, A Family Affair, is an explorative study that complements and builds upon existing studies of the cocoa and coconut value chains in Solomon Islands. This qualitative study combines an inclusive value chain approach with a gender relations framework. The...


The Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) was commissioned by Solidaridad, in partnership with Marks & Spencer, to understand the unmet needs of cocoa growing communities in Ghana, ideate new SME service concepts and develop high-level business models.

Cocoa farming models and markets (Presentation)

Aim: The Netherlands Embassy organised a seminar, hosted by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC) at the University of the West Indies (UWI) to reinforce Dutch-Trinidad & Tobabgo (T&T) links in the area of cocoa. The aim was to provide information on cocoa production and recent trends in Dutch...


Cocoa, grown in tropical environments within 15 to 20 degrees north and south of the equator
(WCF, n.y.), is the main source of livelihood for millions of farmers in Africa, Latin America and Asia
and Oceania. The greatest proportion of raw cocoa is produced in Africa, with Côte d’...

Determination of Cocoa Prices in Cameroon, Nigeria, Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire and Indonesia (Publication)

This Appendix to the report “Market Concentration and Price Formation in the Global Cocoa Value Chain” presents the results of the qualitative fieldwork and elaborates on pricing mechanisms in five cocoa producing countries and how public-private interactions have developed over time. For each...

Market Concentration and Price Formation in the Global Cocoa Value Chain’ (Publication)

This report explores to what extent market concentration in the cocoa value chain is responsible for the widespread poverty of cocoa farmers. The report finds that market concentration among chocolate manufacturers and cocoa processors is not the key cause. Instead, there are two other key...

Improving sustainability in cocoa and coffee (Publication)

Dutch stakeholders join forces to improve sustainability in coffee and cocoa sector: In 2010, a range of public and private actors, civil society organisations, research organisations and stakeholders in the cocoa and coffee sectors signed letters of intent aimed at increasing the sustainability...

Upscaling sustainability initiatives in international commodity chains; Examples from cocoa, coffee and soy value chains in the Netherlands (Publication)

This study reports on the extent to which sustainability initiatives in the cocoa, coffee and soy value chains
have been scaled up by companies. We have investigated how the private sector can be further stimulated to
engage in, sustain and increase their involvement in actions to...



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